Wednesday, December 7, 2016

Cold Temperatures Pose a Risk to Kentucky Strawberries

Chris Smigell, Extension Associate for Small Fruits/Vegetables, 
University of Kentucky  

A cold front forecast for Thursday night may bring temperatures down to 18-19 ºF for all of Kentucky.  Strawberry plants are not fully dormant by now, so it is important to have some frost protection in place.  

We recommend  applying straw over matted row strawberries when the air temperature first drops into the low 20ºs F.  Mulching actually has several benefits:

  • Protects the plant roots from frost heaving. Cycles of freeze and thaw, lift the soil and plants.  This can break roots off,  especially the very smallest root hairs, that are critical for nutrient uptake.  This reduces berry size and yields.
  • Protects the plant crowns from winter injury. Fully dormant buds in crowns are hardy down to about 10º F, but it takes several freezes and consistent cold to fully harden the plants.
  • Minimizes plant desiccation due to winter winds.
  • Minimizes risk of black root rot  

A standard  straw bale should cover about 50 square feet of bed. A 3-inch layer of straw on an acre requires 3 tons of straw.

Leaves are not recommended. They tend to mat down which  can cause rotting and limit light penetration in the spring.

Frost heaving is less common on coarsely-grained soils. Clay-based soils are finely grained.   Any practice that helps drain the soil, such as adding organic matter, trenching, or tiling, helps reduce the risk of heaving.

It can take temperatures much lower than 32  to freeze all of the water in soil, depending on soil type. Thus  even an inch of straw can help reduce the percentage of water frozen in a soil profile, and the less freezing, the less the amount of heave. The following article describes the frost heave process. 

Here's a guide to correctly applying mulch. (photos by John Strang)




Applying plastic mulch in plasticulture systems is a multi-person job, so line up a few helpers, and set out mulch and weights to hold down the sheets ahead of time. Rock bags tend to work better than sod staples or cinder blocks which can tear the fabric. Plasticulture growers that are using lighter weight covers (.5-.75 oz/square yard) could apply one layer now to help protect the plants and then follow up with a second application later in the month or early next year when the extended bitter cold temperatures usually begin.

"Why not just put down straw or apply row covers well ahead of any critically low temperatures?"   Covering plants too early (late October, early November) can prevent late plant growth on those sunny days when temperatures are in the higher 50's. Second, plants need to be in full dormancy once winter really sets in. It takes several freeze cycles and cold soil  to bring plants into full dormancy.  This process will be delayed by applying mulch or cover too soon.  Generally by late November, it is safe to do so. Plant color is another guideline - strawberry leaves should have a grey-green appearance, indicating onset of dormancy.

Tuesday, June 28, 2016

Using Resistant Cultivars to Manage Strawberry Diseases

From the Midwest Small Fruit Pest Management Handbook

In any IPM program, the use of resistant cultivars is an important consideration.  Many commercial cultivars have resistance and/ore tolerance to leaf spot, leaf scorch, red stele, and powdery mildew.  The more resistance within a program, the better.  Table 21 (page 27) lists ratings for disease resistance in several of the more commonly grown strawberry cultivars.


Thursday, May 5, 2016

Calibrate your sprayer now—Here is an easy way to do it 

From Erdal Ozkan, Professor and Extension Agricultural Engineer, The Ohio State University
Originally published as part of The Ohio State University Extension Vegetable and Fruit Newsletter Vol. 23 Number 3, May 3, 2016

Spraying season is just around the corner. Now is the time to pay attention to your sprayer. First, check all the components of the sprayer to make sure they are in working order. The next step in preparations for the season is to calibrate the sprayer. The only way you can achieve maximum accuracy from a sprayer is by calibrating it once before the spraying season starts, and recalibrating it frequently throughout the spraying season. While applying too little pesticide may result in ineffective pest control, too much pesticide wastes money, may damage the crop, and increases the potential risk of contaminating ground water and environment. The primary goal with calibration is to determine the actual rate of application in gallons per acre, then to make adjustments if the difference between the actual rate and the intended rate is greater or less than 5% of the intended rate. This is a recommended guideline by USEPA and USDA. Before starting calibration, make sure you have a good set of nozzles on the sprayer. Nozzles wear off through extended use, causing over application, or some nozzles may become plugged. Clean all the plugged nozzles. Check the output of all the nozzles for a given length of time at a given spray pressure. Compare output from each nozzle’s output with the expected output shown in the nozzle catalog for that nozzle at the same pressure. Replace the nozzles showing an output error of more than 10% of the output of the new nozzle. Once you do this, now you are ready to calibrate your sprayer. Calibrating a boom sprayer is not as difficult as it sounds. There are several ways to calibrate a sprayer. Regardless of which method you choose, only three things are needed: a timer (or watch or smart phone timer app) showing seconds, a measuring tape, and a jar graduated in ounces. Here, I will describe perhaps the easiest of all the methods to calibrate a sprayer.

Photo: Nicole Gauthier, University of Kentucky

To calibrate a boom sprayer for broadcast applications using this method, follow these steps:

1. Fill the sprayer tank (at least half full) with water.

2. Run the sprayer, inspect it for leaks, and make sure all vital parts function properly.

3. Measure the distance in inches between the nozzles.

4. Measure an appropriate travel distance in the field based on this nozzle spacing. The appropriate distances for different nozzle spacing is as follows: 408 ft. for a 10-inch spacing, 272 ft. for a 15-inch spacing, 204 ft. for 20-inch spacing, 136 ft. for a 30-inch spacing, and 102 ft. for a 40-inch spacing.

5. Drive through the measured distance in the field at your normal spraying speed, and record the travel time in seconds. Repeat this procedure and average the two measurements.

6. With the sprayer parked, run the sprayer at the same pressure level and catch the output from each nozzle in a measuring jar for the travel time required in step 5 above.

7. Calculate the average nozzle output by adding the individual outputs and then dividing by the number of nozzles tested. The final average nozzle output in ounces you get is equal to the application rate in gallons per acre. For example, if you catch 15 ounces from a set of nozzles, the actual application rate of the sprayer is equal to 15 gallons per acre.

8. Compare the actual application rate with the recommended or intended rate. If the actual rate is more than 5 percent higher or lower than the recommended or intended rate, you must make adjustments in either the spray pressure or the travel speed or in both. For example, to increase the flow rate you will need to either slow down, or increase the spray pressure. The opposite is true when you need to reduce the application rate. As you make these changes, stay within proper and safe operating condition of the sprayer. Remember increased pressure will result in increasing the number of small, drift-prone droplets.

9. Repeat steps 5-8 above until the recommended application error of +5% or less is achieved.